Linux "route" Command Line Options and Examples
show / manipulate the IP routing table

Route manipulates the kernel's IP routing tables. Its primary use is to set up static routes to specific hosts or networks via an interface after it has been configured with the ifconfig(8) program. When the add or del options are used, route modifies the routing tables.


route [-CFvnNee] [-A family |-4|-6]

Command Line Options:

use the specified address family (eg `inet'). Use route --help for a full list. You can use -6 as analias for --inet6 and -4 as an alias for -A inet
route -A ...
operate on the kernel's FIB (Forwarding Information Base) routing table. This is the default.
route -F ...
operate on the kernel's routing cache.
route -C ...
select verbose operation.
route -v ...
the target is a network.
route -net ...
netmask NMwhen adding a network route, the netmask to be GW route packets via a gateway.NOTE: The specified gateway must be reachable first. This usually means that you have to set up astatic route to the gateway beforehand. If you specify the address of one of your local interfaces, itwill be used to decide about the interface to which the packets should be routed to. This is a BSDismcompatibility hack.metric Mset the metric field in the routing table (used by routing daemons) to M. If this option is not speci‐fied the metric for inet6 (IPv6) address family defaults to '1', for inet (IPv4) it defaults to '0'.You should always specify an explicit metric value to not rely on those defaults - they also differfrom iproute2.mss M sets MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) of the route to M bytes. Note that the current implementation ofthe route command does not allow the option to set the Maximum Segment Size (MSS).window Wset the TCP window size for connections over this route to W bytes. This is typically only used onAX.25 networks and with drivers unable to handle back to back frames.irtt I set the initial round trip time (irtt) for TCP connections over this route to I milliseconds (1-12000).This is typically only used on AX.25 networks. If omitted the RFC 1122 default of 300ms is used.reject install a blocking route, which will force a route lookup to fail. This is for example used to maskout networks before using the default route. This is NOT for firewalling.mod, dyn, reinstateinstall a dynamic or modified route. These flags are for diagnostic purposes, and are generally onlyset by routing If force the route to be associated with the specified device, as the kernel will otherwise try to deter‐mine the device on its own (by checking already existing routes and device specifications, and wherethe route is added to). In most normal networks you won't need this.If dev If is the last option on the command line, the word dev may be omitted, as it's the default.Otherwise the order of the route modifiers (metric netmask gw dev) doesn't matter.EXAMPLESroute add -net netmask metric 1024 dev loadds the normal loopback entry, using netmask and associated with the "lo" device (assumingthis device was previously set up correctly with ifconfig(8)).route add -net netmask metric 1024 dev eth0adds a route to the local network 192.56.76.x via "eth0". The word "dev" can be omitted here.route del defaultdeletes the current default route, which is labeled "default" or in the destination field ofthe current routing table.route del -net netmask the route. Since the Linux routing kernel uses classless addressing, you pretty much alwayshave to specify the netmask that is same as as seen in 'route -n' listing.route add default gw mangoadds a default route (which will be used if no other route matches). All packets using this route willbe gatewayed through the address of a node named "mango". The device which will actually be used forthat route depends on how we can reach "mango" - "mango" must be on directly reachable route.route add mango sl0Adds the route to the host named "mango" via the SLIP interface (assuming that "mango" is the SLIPhost).route add -net netmask gw mangoThis command adds the net "192.57.66.x" to be gatewayed through the former route to the SLIP interface.route add -net netmask dev eth0This is an obscure one documented so people know how to do it. This sets all of the class D (multicast)IP routes to go via "eth0". This is the correct normal configuration line with a multicasting kernel.route add -net netmask metric 1024 rejectThis installs a rejecting route for the private network "10.x.x.x."route -6 add 2001:0002::/48 metric 1 dev eth0This adds a IPv6 route with the specified metric to be directly reachable via eth0.OUTPUTThe output of the kernel routing table is organized in the following columnsDestinationThe destination network or destination host.GatewayThe gateway address or '*' if none set.GenmaskThe netmask for the destination net; '' for a host destination and '' for thedefault route.Flags Possible flags includeU (route is up)H (target is a host)G (use gateway)R (reinstate route for dynamic routing)D (dynamically installed by daemon or redirect)M (modified from routing daemon or redirect)A (installed by addrconf)C (cache entry)! (reject route)Metric The 'distance' to the target (usually counted in hops).Ref Number of references to this route. (Not used in the Linux kernel.)Use Count of lookups for the route. Depending on the use of -F and -C this will be either route cachemisses (-F) or hits (-C).Iface Interface to which packets for this route will be sent.MSS Default maximum segment size for TCP connections over this route.Window Default window size for TCP connections over this route.irtt Initial RTT (Round Trip Time). The kernel uses this to guess about the best TCP protocol parameterswithout waiting on (possibly slow) answers.HH (cached only)The number of ARP entries and cached routes that refer to the hardware header cache for the cachedroute. This will be -1 if a hardware address is not needed for the interface of the cached route (e.g.lo).Arp (cached only)Whether or not the hardware address for the cached route is up to date.FILES/proc/net/ipv6_route/proc/net/route/proc/net/rt_cache
route -host ...