Linux "grops" Command Line Options and Examples
PostScript driver for groff

grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript. Normally grops should be invoked by using the groff command with a -Tps option. (Actually, this is the default for groff.


grops [-glmv] [-b n] [-c n] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-p papersize] [-P prologue] [-w n] [files ...]

Command Line Options:

Print n copies of each page.
grops -cn ...
Print the document in landscape format.
grops -l ...
Turn manual feed on for the document.
grops -m ...
Set physical dimension of output medium. This overrides the papersize, paperlength, and paperwidth commands in the DESC file;it accepts the same arguments as the papersize command. See groff_font (5) for details.
grops -ppaper-size ...
Use the file prologue-file (in the font path) as the prologue instead of the default prologue file prologue. This optionoverrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.
grops -Pprologue-file ...
USAGEThe input to grops must be in the format output by troff(1). This is described in groff_out(5).In addition, the device and font description files for the device used must meet certain requirements: The resolution must be aninteger multiple of 72 times the sizescale. The ps device uses a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.The device description file must contain a valid paper size; see groff_font(5) for more information.Each font description file must contain a commandinternalname psnamewhich says that the PostScript name of the font is psname. It may also contain a commandencoding enc_filewhich says that the PostScript font should be reencoded using the encoding described in enc_file; this file should consist of asequence of lines of the form:pschar codewhere pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code is its position in the encoding expressed as a decimal integer; validvalues are in the range 0 to 255. Lines starting with # and blank lines are ignored. The code for each character given in the fontfile must correspond to the code for the character in encoding file, or to the code in the default encoding for the font if the Post‐Script font is not to be reencoded. This code can be used with the \N escape sequence in troff to select the character, even if thecharacter does not have a groff name. Every character in the font file must exist in the PostScript font, and the widths given inthe font file must match the widths used in the PostScript font. grops assumes that a character with a groff name of space is blank(makes no marks on the page); it can make use of such a character to generate more efficient and compact PostScript output.Note that grops is able to display all glyphs in a PostScript font, not only 256. enc_file (or the default encoding if no encodingfile specified) just defines the order of glyphs for the first 256 characters; all other glyphs are accessed with additional encodingvectors which grops produces on the fly.grops can automatically include the downloadable fonts necessary to print the document. Such fonts must be in PFA format. Usepfbtops(1) to convert a Type 1 font in PFB format. Any downloadable fonts which should, when required, be included by grops must belisted in the file /usr/share/groff/1.22.3/font/devps/download; this should consist of lines of the formfont filenamewhere font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # andblank lines are ignored; fields may be separated by tabs or spaces; filename is searched for using the same mechanism that is usedfor groff font metric files. The download file itself is also searched for using this mechanism; currently, only the first foundfile in the font path is used.If the file containing a downloadable font or imported document conforms to the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then gropsinterprets any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own output is conforming. It also supplies any needed fontresources that are listed in the download file as well as any needed file resources. It is also able to handle inter-resource depen‐dencies. For example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and also a downloadable font called Garamond-Out‐line which depends on Garamond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary, and change the PaintType), then itis necessary for Garamond to appear before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document. grops handles this automatically providedthat the downloadable font file for Garamond-Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by means of the Document Structuring Con‐ventions, for example by beginning with the following lines%!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font%%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond%%EndComments%%IncludeResource: font GaramondIn this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed in the download file. A downloadable font should not includeits own name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.grops does not interpret %%DocumentFonts comments. The %%DocumentNeededResources, %%DocumentSuppliedResources, %%IncludeResource,%%BeginResource, and %%EndResource comments (or possibly the old %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont,%%BeginFont, and %%EndFont comments) should be used.In the default setup there are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted at font positions 1 to 4. The fonts are grouped into familiesA, BM, C, H, HN, N, P, and T having members in each of these styles:AR AvantGarde-BookAI AvantGarde-BookObliqueAB AvantGarde-DemiABI AvantGarde-DemiObliqueBMR Bookman-LightBMI Bookman-LightItalicBMB Bookman-DemiBMBI Bookman-DemiItalicCR CourierCI Courier-ObliqueCB Courier-BoldCBI Courier-BoldObliqueHR HelveticaHI Helvetica-ObliqueHB Helvetica-BoldHBI Helvetica-BoldObliqueHNR Helvetica-NarrowHNI Helvetica-Narrow-ObliqueHNB Helvetica-Narrow-BoldHNBI Helvetica-Narrow-BoldObliqueNR NewCenturySchlbk-RomanNI NewCenturySchlbk-ItalicNB NewCenturySchlbk-BoldNBI NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalicPR Palatino-RomanPI Palatino-ItalicPB Palatino-BoldPBI Palatino-BoldItalicTR Times-RomanTI Times-ItalicTB Times-BoldTBI Times-BoldItalicThere is also the following font which is not a member of a family:ZCMI ZapfChancery-MediumItalicThere are also some special fonts called S for the PS Symbol font, and SS, containing slanted lowercase Greek letters taken from PSSymbol. Zapf Dingbats is available as ZD, and a reversed version of ZapfDingbats (with symbols pointing in the opposite direction)is available as ZDR; most characters in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using \N.The default color for \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the ‘rgb’ color space setrgbcolor is used, for ‘cmy’ and ‘cmyk’setcmykcolor, and for ‘gray’ setgray. Note that setcmykcolor is a PostScript LanguageLevel 2 command and thus not available on someolder printers.grops understands various X commands produced using the \X escape sequence; grops only interprets commands that begin with a ps: tag.\X'ps: exec code'This executes the arbitrary PostScript commands in code. The PostScript currentpoint is set to the position of the \X commandbefore executing code. The origin is at the top left corner of the page, and y coordinates increase down the page. A proce‐dure u is defined that converts groff units to the coordinate system in effect (provided the user doesn't change the scale).For example,.nr x 1i\X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'draws a horizontal line one inch long. code may make changes to the graphics state, but any changes persist only to the endof the page. A dictionary containing the definitions specified by the def and mdef is on top of the dictionary stack. Ifyour code adds definitions to this dictionary, you should allocate space for them using \X'ps mdef n'. Any definitions per‐sist only until the end of the page. If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code can extendover multiple lines. For example,.nr x yps: exec\nx u 0 rlinetostroke..\Yyis another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long. Note the single backslash before ‘nx’ – the only reason to use a num‐ber register while defining the macro ‘y’ is to convert a user-specified dimension ‘1i’ to internal groff units which are inturn converted to PS units with the u procedure.grops wraps user-specified PostScript code into a dictionary, nothing more. In particular, it doesn't start and end theinserted code with save and restore, respectively. This must be supplied by the user, if necessary.\X'ps: file name'This is the same as the exec command except that the PostScript code is read from file name.\X'ps: def code'Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue. There should be at most one definition per \X command. Longdefinitions can be split over several \X commands; all the code arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.The definitions are placed in a dictionary which is automatically pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is exe‐cuted. If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code can extend over multiple lines.\X'ps: mdef n code'Like def, except that code may contain up to n definitions. grops needs to know how many definitions code contains so that itcan create an appropriately sized PostScript dictionary to contain them.\X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'Import a PostScript graphic from file. The arguments llx, lly, urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in thedefault PostScript coordinate system; they should all be integers; llx and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower leftcorner of the graphic; urx and ury are the x and y coordinates of the upper right corner of the graphic; width and height areintegers that give the desired width and height in groff units of the graphic.The graphic is scaled so that it has this width and height and translated so that the lower left corner of the graphic islocated at the position associated with \X command. If the height argument is omitted it is scaled uniformly in the x andy directions so that it has the specified width.Note that the contents of the \X command are not interpreted by troff; so vertical space for the graphic is not automaticallyadded, and the width and height arguments are not allowed to have attached scaling indicators.If the PostScript file complies with the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and contains a %%BoundingBox comment, then thebounding box can be automatically extracted from within groff by using the psbb request.See groff_tmac(5) for a description of the PSPIC macro which provides a convenient high-level interface for inclusion of Post‐Script graphics.\X'ps: invis'\X'ps: endinvis'No output is generated for text and drawing commands that are bracketed with these \X commands. These commands are intendedfor use when output from troff is previewed before being processed with grops; if the previewer is unable to display certaincharacters or other constructs, then other substitute characters or constructs can be used for previewing by bracketing themwith these \X commands.For example, gxditview is not able to display a proper \(em character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; thisproblem can be overcome by executing the following request.char \(em \X'ps: invis'\\Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\\X'ps: endinvis'\(emIn this case, gxditview is unable to display the \(em character and draws the line, whereas grops prints the \(em characterand ignores the line (this code is already in file Xps.tmac which is loaded if a document intended for grops is previewed withgxditview).If a PostScript procedure BPhook has been defined via a ‘ps: def’ or ‘ps: mdef’ device command, it is executed at the beginning ofevery page (before anything is drawn or written by groff). For example, to underlay the page contents with the word ‘DRAFT’ in lightgray, you might XXps: def/BPhook{ gsave .9 setgray clippath pathbbox exch 2 copy.5 mul exch .5 mul translate atan rotate pop pop/NewCenturySchlbk-Roman findfont 200 scalefont setfont(DRAFT) dup stringwidth pop -.5 mul -70 moveto showgrestore }def...devicem XXOr, to cause lines and polygons to be drawn with square linecaps and mitered linejoins instead of the round linecaps and linejoinsnormally used by grops, XXps: def/BPhook { 2 setlinecap 0 setlinejoin } def...devicem XX(square linecaps, as opposed to butt linecaps (0 setlinecap), give true corners in boxed tables even though the lines are drawnunconnected).Encapsulated PostScriptgrops itself doesn't emit bounding box information. With the help of Ghostscript the following simple script, groff2eps, produces anencapsulated PS file.#! /bin/shgroff -P-b16 $1 > $1.psgs -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=bbox -- $ 2> $1.bboxsed -e "/^%%Orientation/r $1.bbox" \
grops -v ...
rm $ $1.bboxJust saygroff2eps footo convert file foo to foo.eps.TrueType and other font formatsTrueType fonts can be used with grops if converted first to Type 42 format, a special PostScript wrapper equivalent to the PFA formatmentioned in pfbtops(1). There are several different methods to generate a type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of aPostScript interpreter such as Ghostscript – see gs(1).Yet, the easiest method involves the use of the application ttftot42(1). This program uses freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to generatetype42 font wrappers and well-formed AFM files that can be fed to the afmtodit(1) script to create appropriate metric files. Theresulting font wrappers should be added to the download file. ttftot42 source code can be downloaded from ⟨⟩.Another solution for creating type42 wrappers is to use FontForge, available from ⟨⟩.This font editor can convert most outline font formats.FONT INSTALLATIONThis section gives a summary of the above explanations; it can serve as a step-by-step font installation guide for grops.· Convert your font to something groff understands. This is either a PostScript Type 1 font in PFA format or a PostScript Type 42font, together with an AFM file.The very first characters in a PFA file look like this:%!PS-AdobeFont-1.0:A PFB file has this also in the first line, but the string is preceded with some binary bytes.The very first characters in a Type 42 font file look like this:%!PS-TrueTypeFontThis is a wrapper format for TrueType fonts. Old PS printers might not support it (this is, they don't have a built-in TrueTypefont interpreter).If your font is in PFB format (such fonts normally have ‘.pfb’ as the file extension), you might use groff's pfbtops(1) programto convert it to PFA. For TrueType fonts, try ttftot42 or fontforge. For all other font formats use fontforge which can convertmost outline font formats.· Convert the AFM file to a groff font description file with the afmtodit(1) program. An example call isafmtodit Foo-Bar-Bold.afm textmap FBBwhich converts the metric file ‘Foo-Bar-Bold.afm’ to the groff font ‘FBB’. If you have a font family which comes with normal,bold, italic, and bold italic faces, it is recommended to use the letters R, B, I, and BI, respectively, as postfixes in thegroff font names to make groff's ‘.fam’ request work. An example is groff's built-in Times-Roman font: The font family name isT, and the groff font names are TR, TB, TI, and TBI.· Install both the groff font description files and the fonts in a ‘devps’ subdirectory of the font path which groff finds. Seethe ENVIRONMENT section in the troff(1) man page which lists the actual value of the font path. Note that groff doesn't use theAFM files (but it is a good idea to store them anyway).· Register all fonts which must be downloaded to the printer in the ‘devps/download’ file. Only the first occurrence of this filein the font path is read. This means that you should copy the default ‘download’ file to the first directory in your font pathand add your fonts there. To continue the above example we assume that the PS font name for Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa is ‘XY-Foo-Bar-Bold’ (the PS font name is stored in the internalname field in the ‘FBB’ file), thus the following line should be added to ’down‐load’.XY-Foo-Bar-Bold Foo-Bar-Bold.pfaOLD FONTSgroff versions 1.19.2 and earlier contain a slightly different set of the 35 Adobe core fonts; the difference is mainly the lack ofthe ‘Euro’ glyph and a reduced set of kerning pairs. For backwards compatibility, these old fonts are installed also in the/usr/share/groff/1.22.3/oldfont/devpsdirectory.To use them, make sure that grops finds the fonts before the default system fonts (with the same names): Either add command lineoption -F to gropsgroff -Tps -P-F -P/usr/share/groff/1.22.3/oldfont ...or add the directory to groff's font path environment variableGROFF_FONT_PATH=/usr/share/groff/1.22.3/oldfontENVIRONMENTGROPS_PROLOGUEIf this is set to foo, then grops uses the file foo (in the font path) instead of the default prologue file prologue. Theoption -P overrides this environment variable.GROFF_FONT_PATHA list of directories in which to search for the devname directory in addition to the default ones. See troff(1) andgroff_font(5) for more details.SOURCE_DATE_EPOCHA timestamp (expressed as seconds since the Unix epoch) to use as the creation timestamp in place of the current time.FILES/usr/share/groff/1.22.3/font/devps/DESC Device description file./usr/share/groff/1.22.3/font/devps/F Font description file for font F./usr/share/groff/1.22.3/font/devps/download List of downloadable fonts./usr/share/groff/1.22.3/font/devps/text.enc Encoding used for text fonts./usr/share/groff/1.22.3/tmac/ps.tmac Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc/usr/share/groff/1.22.3/tmac/pspic.tmac Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac./usr/share/groff/1.22.3/tmac/psold.tmac Macros to disable use of characters not present in older PostScript printers (e.g.,‘eth’ or ‘thorn’)./tmp/gropsXXXXXX Temporary file. See groff(1) for details on the location of temporary files.
grops -e ...